Regular, irregular, how long should the cycle be?

One of the most exciting moments in a girl’s life is the onset of the first menstrual cycle. This event is associated with many questions that every girl has to answer. In women, menstruation occurs individually, but the mechanisms to which it obeys are the same. It is good for every lady, regardless of her age, to monitor her cycle so that in case of anxiety she can see a doctor.  

Which organs does the female reproductive system include? 

The female reproductive system consists of: 

  • Two ovaries – In them the eggs are stored, developed and released during ovulation 
  • Two fallopian tubes – two thin tubes that connect the ovaries with the uterus. Fertilization takes place in them. 
  • Uterus – here, the fertilized egg is implanted and the baby develops
  • Cervix – the connection between the vagina and the uterus 
  • Vagina [1] 

What is the menstrual cycle? 

The menstrual cycle is a term that describes the sequence of events that occur in the body as it prepares for a possible pregnancy. Every month, an egg is released from one ovary — a process known as ovulation. If fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus that is prepared for implantation of the fertilized egg is released through the vagina (menstruation). Your menstrual cycle is the time from the first day of menstruation to the first day of the next. [2] 

What are the phases of the menstrual cycle? 

Different hormones are involved in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. The organs of your reproductive tract react in certain ways under their influence. Specific events that occur during your menstrual cycle are:  

  • Menstrual phase:  It lasts about 5 days and is the time when the lining of the uterus separates through the vagina if pregnancy has not occurred. Most women bleed for three to five days, but menstruation lasting three to seven days is also within the norm.  
  • The follicular phase: This phase usually occurs from the sixth to the 14th day. During this time, the level of the hormone estrogen rises, causing the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to thicken. In addition, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the follicles in the ovaries to develop and grow. From day 10 to day 14, a fully mature egg will form in one of the developing follicles.  
  • Ovulation: This phase occurs approximately on the 14th day of a 28-day menstrual cycle. A sudden increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) helps your ovary release an egg. This event is ovulation and can be easily predicted and established with a test Oview
  • The luteal phase: This phase lasts from about day 15 to day 28. The egg leaves the ovary and begins to pass through the fallopian tubes until it reaches the uterus. The level of progesterone rises to prepare the lining of the uterus for a possible pregnancy. If the egg  is fertilized by a sperm and attaches to the uterine wall (implantation), pregnancy occurs. If there is a desire for early detection or rejection of pregnancy, you can use tests Presto. If fertilization has not occurred, estrogen and progesterone levels drop and the lining of the uterus is separated (menstruation). [3] 

Usually, the first menstruation occurs around the age of 12. The norm for the occurrence of a cycle is between 8 and 16 years. If it occurs earlier or later, a doctor’s consultation is necessary to establish what the cause is. 

What is a normal cycle?  

The menstrual cycle is the time spanning the first day of one menstruation to the first day of the next and is not the same for every woman. Menstrual flow can occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. In the first few years after the onset of menstruation, long cycles are common, but over time they become more regular. [2] 

Your menstrual cycle may be regular – about the same duration each month or somewhat irregular, and your period may be light or profuse, painful or painless, long or short and this may also be normal. [4] 

What is an irregular cycle? 

If your menstrual cycle is shorter than 24 days or more than 38 days, or if the duration varies greatly from month to month, it means that you have an irregular cycle. Examples of irregular cycles are:  

  • Lack of three or more menstruations in a row. 
  • Menstrual flow (bleeding) that is much heavier or weaker than usual. 
  • Periods that last more than seven days. 
  • The length of time between cycles varies by more than nine days. For example, one cycle is 28 days, the next is 37 days, and the next is 29 days. 
  • Bleeding or spotting that occurs between menstruations, after menopause, or after intercourse. [3] 

Terms associated with irregular cycle 

  • Amenorrhoea: A condition in which your period has stopped completely. Absence of menstruation for 90 days or more is considered abnormal unless you are pregnant, breastfeeding or going through menopause (occurs between 45 and 55 years). If menstruation has not started by the age of 16 or within three years of the onset of breast development, It can also mean amenorrhea. 
  • Oligomenorrhea: a condition in which menstruation occurs rarely – menstruations, between which there are more than 35 days or you have six to eight menstruations per year. 
  • Dysmenorrhea: a medical term for painful menstruation and severe menstrual cramps. Some discomfort during your cycle is normal. 
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding: Abnormal uterine bleeding is bleeding between monthly periods, prolonged bleeding, or extremely heavy menstruation. [3] 

What diseases can lead to an irregular cycle? 

The reasons leading to cycle problems are many and varied. These include: 

  • Pregnancy or breast-feeding. Lack of a cycle can be an early sign of pregnancy. Breastfeeding usually delays the return of menstruation after pregnancy. 
  • Eating disorders, extreme weight loss or excessive exercise. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, extreme weight loss and increased physical activity can disrupt menstruation. 
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with this common endocrine system disease have irregular cycles, ovaries that contain multiple follicles located in each ovary.  
  • Premature ovarian failure. Premature ovarian failure refers to the loss of normal ovarian function before the age of 40. Women who have premature ovarian insufficiency also known as primary ovarian failure may have an irregular or occasional cycle for years. 
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This infection of the reproductive organs can cause irregular menstrual bleeding. 
  • Uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous growths of the uterus. They can cause heavy and prolonged menstrual periods. [4] 

How to monitor your menstrual cycle? 

An irregular period can be a sign of a problem. Your doctor will ask you about your last menstruation and menstrual cycles. Knowing what is normal for you can be extremely beneficial for your doctor. 

Keeping track of your cycle can help you understand when you’re ovulating, which is extremely important if you’re trying for a baby.   

To track your cycle: 

  • Mark the first day of your menstruation in the calendar with X. This is the first day. 

Stop noting when your bleeding stops. 

  • When bleeding starts again, mark it with X. This is day one again. 
  • You can then count the number of days between each first X to get the length of your cycle. Count the number of X to see how many days the bleeding (menstruation) lasts. [4] 

Every girl goes through certain stages of her life that make her a woman.  

One of the important moments is the onset of the first menstruation, the next is the birth of a child. Every moment is both magical and important. It is good for every girl to be aware of what is normal for her and in case of anxiety to seek professional help.  



[3]  [4]

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