Miscarriage-what is it? 

Miscarriage This is one of the most traumatic events a couple can experience. This has an impact on the psyche of a woman, on her life and last but not least, negatively affects the family. The reasons for its occurrence can be varied and unfortunately there is no way to predict it. In the following article, we will pay a little more attention to what the term miscarriage means. 

What is miscarriage?  

Miscarriage is understood as the loss of pregnancy, naturally, before the onset of 20 weeks. About 20% of established pregnancies end in this way. There are several different types of miscarriage. Determining the type is essential for the most appropriate treatment. It is complex and is carried out through a multidisciplinary team of many different doctors. [1]    

What are the causes of miscarriage?   

Nearly half of miscarriages occur as a result of some chromosomal mutation that is incompatible with life. Advanced age and a history of previous incidents are one of the most common risk factors for recurrence of miscarriage. The incidence of early pregnancy loss in women between the ages of 20-30 is only 9 to 17%, while the incidence at the age of 45 of the mother is about 80%.  

In addition to the above reasons, there are other predisposing factors. Some chronic diseases such as diabetes, antiphospholipid syndrome, infections of the reproductive system (cervicitis, vaginitis), HIV infection, syphilis, etc. are risk factors for the onset of miscarriage. Structural abnormalities of the uterus, inside uterine adhesions and cervical insufficiency are also important risk factors for the loss of the baby.[1]  

What are the types of miscarriage? 

There are several types of miscarriage – threatening, starting, progredient, unfinished, completed, detained.  

  • Threatening  – it has spotting to moderate bleeding, discomfort that is  similar to menstrual; 
  • Onset of misscarriage – initially bleeding occurs, which is of different strength (stronger than the previous type of miscarriage) and tends to increase. Then there is pain; 
  • Progredient – is an abortion in progress, where bleeding and pain are strongest; 
  • Unfinished – pain and bleeding in it are not so pronounced; 
  • Completed – in it, pain is absent, bleeding is weak or absent for the moment, but after a while it reappears; 
  • Retained – occurs when the fetus is implanted, but fails to develop.  

It is important to emphasize that the signs of pregnancy disappear – morning sickness, chest tension, morning vomiting, etc. [2] 

How do you know if miscarriage is most likely? 

In an established pregnancy, it is very important, at the slightest symptoms such as those listed below, to contact your doctor. They are: 

  • Bleeding, which can range from mild to severe. It is possible to secrete blood clots or grayish tissue; 
  • Cramps and abdominal pain (usually stronger than menstrual cramps); 
  • Low back pain, which may be mild or severe; 
  • Reducing the symptoms of pregnancy – morning sickness with vomiting, chest tension, etc. 

However, the retained misscariage does not have any definitive symptoms. It is important if you notice a decrease in the signs of pregnancy to consult a doctor.[3] 

How is miscarriage detected? 

The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinic and some studies. Pain and bleeding are directive, but these symptoms are also found in other diseases. Therefore, in addition to confirming pregnancy, some additional studies are also important, such as:  

  • Intravaginal examination – the goal is to find out if the cervix has begun to dilate. 
  • Ultrasound – essential for establishing the type of abortion, especially in early pregnancy. During ultrasound, the doctor will check for fetal heart rhythm and determine whether the embryo is developing properly. If the diagnosis cannot be made, another ultrasound may need to be done in about a week. 
  • Blood tests. Your doctor can check the level of the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in your blood and compare it with previous measurements. If changes in your HCG level are abnormal, it could indicate a problem. Your doctor can check if you have anemia, which can happen if you’ve experienced significant bleeding. Determining the blood type is also of great importance in pregnancy.  
  • Chromosome tests. If you’ve had two or more previous miscarriages, your doctor may run blood tests for both you and your partner to determine if the miscarriages are due to any chromosomal changes.[4] 

What is the treatment for miscarriage? 

With ultrasound, it is now much easier to determine whether the embryo is no longer alive or has never formed. Both statements mean that miscarriage is likely to occur. In this situation, there may be several choices: 

  • Waiting behavior – If you have no signs of infection, you can choose to let the miscarriage run naturally. Usually, this happens within a few weeks (up to 3-4) after establishing that the embryo has died. This can be an emotionally difficult time. If expulsion (separation) does not occur alone, medical or surgical treatment will be necessary. 
  • Drug treatment. If, after diagnosing pregnancy loss, you prefer to speed up the process, drug treatment can cause your body to clear of pregnancy faster. The medicine can be taken orally or by insertion into the vagina. Your doctor may recommend inserting the medicine vaginally to increase its effectiveness and minimize side effects such as nausea and diarrhea. In about 70 to 90% of women, This treatment works within 24 hours. 
  • Surgical treatment. Another option is a small surgical procedure called aspiration dilation and curettage (D&C). During this procedure, your doctor dilates the cervix and removes the tissue from inside the uterus. Complications are rare, but may include damage to the connective tissue of the cervix or the uterine wall. Surgical treatment is necessary, if you have a miscarriage accompanied by heavy bleeding or signs of infection.[4] 

How long does physical recovery take after miscarriage?  

In most cases, physical recovery after a miscarriage takes anywhere from a few hours to a few days. Meanwhile, be sure to call your doctor if you experience severe bleeding, fever, or abdominal pain. You may ovulate two weeks after miscarriage. When exactly it will occur or whether it has already occurred, you can easily determine with ovulation tests Oview. Expect your cycle to return to normal within four to six weeks. You can start using any type of contraception immediately after miscarriage. However, avoid having sex or inserting anything into your vagina, such as a tampon, for two weeks after this unpleasant event. [4] 

Future pregnancies after miscarriage 

It is possible to get pregnant during the menstrual cycle immediately after a miscarriage. But if you and your partner decide to try another pregnancy, make sure you are physically and emotionally ready and healthy. Ask your doctor for guidance on when you can try to get pregnant. There are many methods to determine ovulation, but one of the most accurate methods is ovulation tests such as Oview, with which you can easily determine the two most suitable days for getting pregnant.  

Miscarriage It usually happens once. Most women who have gone through this have a hassle-free subsequent pregnancy. Less than 5% of women have two consecutive losses per baby and only 1% have three or more consecutive miscarriages

If you have multiple miscarriages, usually two or three in a row, consider testing to identify the underlying causes. If, despite everything, the problem cannot be identified, do not lose hope. About 60 to 80% of women with unexplained recurrent abortions subsequently have normal pregnancies. [4] 

Miscarriage It’s a very emotionally traumatic moment for a woman. At the slightest suspicion of miscarriage, consult your doctor so that, if there is a way, the baby and pregnancy can be saved. However, if things end unfavorably, do not lose hope. World medicine is constantly evolving and its goal is to help every family to hug their baby.  

Read more at: 

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560521/  

[2] https://progyny.com/education/female-infertility/types-miscarriage/  

[3] https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9688-miscarriage   

[4] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-loss-miscarriage/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354304

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